The thing about landscape photography is that we all want to capture the beauty of the landscape and its allure in that magical moment. It is what makes the image so special and memorable to us. Regardless of exploring the urban cityscape or travelling to the countryside wilderness, that ideal time of shoot is almost certainly during the golden hour or blue hour. However, there are many different qualities of light conditions throughout the day. The start and end point of a day may vary, depending on factors such as the season, latitude, longitude and time zone. The weather also plays a part in shaping the light conditions onto the landscape as different light conditions exude different moods of the environment.
As a seasoned landscape photographer, I often find myself at the mercy of the changing weather conditions and I have learnt to be open to these changing conditions. Sometimes it’s just not feasible to produce images with the exact ideal conditions since one could only spend a limited amount of time one location at a time. Hence, I believe doing some research in advance does increase the success rate of achieving a memorable image.
In this article, I attempt to explain the various types of lighting conditions as one may expect through different times of the day, as well as tips in shooting landscape photography in these conditions from my experience. Before I began, there are some terms I have used here which you should get familiar with:
a. Golden Hour
The golden hour happens twice a day where the sun is positioned near the horizon, radiating its brilliant golden tone of light. Of course, when this occurs will depend on one’s location and will vary with the seasons. For example, these locations near the equator tend to have shorter golden hour whereas locations further from the equator may experience longer golden hours during certain seasons.
b. Twilight / Blue Hour
The twilight or blue hour refers to the period of time before sunrise or after sunset where the sun is below the visible horizon. The atmosphere is illuminated neither completely lit nor completely dark. Depending on the position of the geometric angle of the sun relative to the horizon, the twilight time can be further divided into civil twilight, nautical twilight and astronomical twilight. Another special situation is that temporal twilight may also happen during a celestial event such as a total solar eclipse. But for the sake of this article, all these shall be condensed as one category.
c. Night time
Night time or complete darkness, as the opposite of day, is the period of time between sunset and sunrise where the sun is significantly below the horizon. There are two kinds of ambient lighting during the night time: Artificial lighting from man-made structures and Natural illumination which can be provided by a combination of moonlight, celestial phenomenon, aurorae, lightning storms, etc.
1. The Morning Twilight
During this time of the day, there are just enough ambient lights balanced with the darkness of the sky and this is the only time where we can maximise the colours of the scene to the fullest in the image. When you’re out early in the dark shooting the neighbourhood or the wilderness, it is still necessary to take some safety precautions.
This image was shot during the cold, wee hours of the morning, so technically it’s still at night time. However, what makes this image special was that a celestial phenomenon of the Super blood moon was happening. In this case, the moon had appeared much brighter than usual before its transition into a total lunar eclipse, rendering the dark black sky into a temporal twilight.
2. At Dawn
Dawn is the period just before sunrise and it has a slightly cooler and subtler, almost pastel feel compared to other times of the day. The atmosphere and mood at this time are usually very peaceful and quiet as people would have just woken up and are preparing for work. However, the lighting conditions at this time can change dramatically as the day transits from the morning twilight into the golden hour.
I am not usually a morning person so to capture the landscape at dawn. To capture this image of the Seljalandsfoss in Iceland early in the morning, my best solution was to stay overnight in my vehicle. It’s not the best experience considering it was during winter but I would have the waterfall to myself on the next day before more visitors arrive. As the sunrise approaches, you can see the orange glow of the soon to rise sun blending with the soft pink tones of the dawn sky.
3. The Morning Golden Hour
Most photographers would agree that the golden hour is the best time to shoot landscape and they can’t be wrong. During this time, light from the morning sunrise and the evening sunset often bathe buildings and landscapes with its brilliant golden glow.
I took this photo of the private estates from outside the Keppel Bay area in Singapore. The atmosphere was still quiet as the sun had just entered the morning golden hour period. The quality of light has a lighter, cooler yellow tone. If you have experienced both morning and evening golden hours, you would have noticed that the quality of light in the morning always have a slightly cooler colour temperature than the evening.
This photo was taken on a hill near the University of East Anglia in Norwich, UK. I came here to catch the Perseids meteor shower one night and later I became curious at how the scene would look like in the morning. So, I decided to stay up through the night until dawn. As the sun rose from the horizon, I thought the strong backlight from the sun would create interesting silhouettes on these wild flowering plants, thereby emphasizing on the rich quality of the golden sunlight.
4. Misty Morning
The misty weather can be a fantastic opportunity to capture landscapes in an otherworldly, ethereal feel. As mists usually occur near the shores, it can last for a couple of hours in the morning, or half a day or even the entire night. However, misty weather doesn’t happen every day. If you live in an area where mists can develop, do keep a close eye on the weather forecast to increase your chances of shooting. It is always a good idea to explore in pairs or small groups. Sometimes mists can develop into cold, thick fog and that may significantly reduce our visibility. Be extremely careful especially if you have to drive to your location. Coming from experience, I don’t recommend driving in the fog.
This image is special to me because it was the first time I have captured a misty landscape. My friend and I had planned a visit to the Mousehold Heath in Norwich, the UK as the mist had been in the weather forecast. Driving through the early morning mist proved to be quite challenging for me due to the poor visibility on the road. When we reached there, we started to wander around the area in close proximity to find our own ideal composition. The foggy atmosphere had reminded me of the scenes from the horror film, Silent Hill.
I later picked another spot of the heath as the sun finally came out at dawn with the faded background obscured by the mist. The mists have separated the foreground and background elements, creating an ethereal scene with a soothing blend of warm and cool colours, almost pastel-like.
In the next image, I had attempted to capture the morning dews on the dried plant as my subject focus. The plant seemed to be a lot more focused because of the mist that rendered the background much softer than the lens would normally obscure.
Another important point to take note is that mists and haze are two very different atmospheric phenomena. While the mist is caused by small droplets of water suspended in air, however, haze is caused by dust, smoke and other dry particulates that obscure the clarity of the sky. These harmful particles can cause severe breathing problems to our respiratory system and are usually caused by farming, exhaust fumes from heavy traffic, industrial pollution, volcanic eruptions, and even wildfires!
5. Sunny Days
Many photographers tend to avoid shooting landscapes during the midday as light from the high sun are usually much harsher than the light at dawn or dusk. However, strong light on bright sunny days can be great for capturing vibrant colours and contrasting visual elements of the landscape. This doesn’t necessarily mean it has to be during the summer as there are also plenty of sunshine in places around the tropical region, such as Singapore.
Sunny days with strong light are great for creating high contrast images, particularly when there are scattered clouds. This photo was taken in Central Tampines, Singapore on one sunny day. These bright white clouds stand out against the blue sky and help to build a sense of drama in the image. I often use a Gradient Neutral Density filter for a sunny day shoot like this. It helps to reduce the intensity of the sunlight and makes the exposure more balanced. With a stronger ND filter, it is possible to achieve a slower shutter speed on a bright day, thereby creating a motion blur effect on any movement in the image.
Sunny days with clear blue skies could also be a suitable time for architecture photography because the form, shapes, angles and colours are the most important visual elements for architecture photography. A clear blue sky does not distract from the main subject of the photo. On the contrary, blue skies act as a counter-balance to these heavy visual elements. Sometimes you could even capture striking visuals of buildings through window reflections! I captured the iconic St Paul’s Cathedral in London from a nearby shopping mall on one sunny summer afternoon. I loved how the strong light reflected off these glass windows have produced illusions of the cathedral and these strong visual lines lead back to the dome structure. The blue sky has certainly added some punch to the image, though I wished it could have been a clearer, deeper blue. However, it’s not every day to have such ideal conditions in London.
This was taken in Sligachan in the Isle of Skye, Scotland. The sunny afternoon had presented the highland landscape with an insanely deep blue sky, rendering the image in an almost painterly feel. I took a short hike to the river and set up my camera at a relatively low angle so I would be able to capture the contrast of the rocky riverbed against these mountains. When you’re out shooting in rugged terrains like this on a sunny day, remember to stay sufficiently hydrated and have plenty of sun protection!
6. Overcast Days
For some photographers, cloudy overcast days isn’t a good time for landscape photography because the sky tends to be very flat and white and not particularly interesting. From the logistical perspective, it is a hassle to bring our gears out when the weather doesn’t know it wants to rain or shine. However, overcast skies are perfect for capturing moody atmospheric scenes and portraitures. They are like a huge studio lightbox that gives an even lighting on the subjects. You could use this lighting to your advantage by focusing on your subject details rather than vast sweeping landscapes. Street photography, black and white and minimalistic styles are some ways you could approach to photograph overcast days.
This is an image of a coastal town called Sheringham in the UK. A friend had brought me here for a project work one autumn morning. It was a windy, overcast day with intermittent rain, typical of the British weather. At the point, there were not many people out on the promenade and all we could hear were the crashing of waves on the shore. Perhaps this gave me an impression that a flat, almost washed-out feel reflects the mood of the quiet, coastal town.
However, that is not to say that overcast days would always certainly result in moody atmospheric feel. Dull overcast skies can also offer contrast for colour visual elements, such as the image above. I took this one early morning on the platform of Hoxton station, a district in East London. Overcast skies could also be a useful visual counter-balance for a minimalistic feel to your images.
Sometimes overcast days can produce the most dramatic scene out of the landscape just before the start of a heavy rain, especially during a monsoon season. Such as this image captured in the Scottish Highlands where intense the cloud formation looms over the mountain terrain. Of course, this might have been even better if there were sun rays piercing through the cloud break.
7. In the Rain
Shooting in the rain is always a hassle. We are so used to our own comfort zones that we tend to put our cameras away when the wet weather comes. We might get extremely concerned that the rain would damage our camera gears even though they are pretty much weatherproof these days. However, with sufficient preparation, rain can present great opportunities for interesting cityscape photographs we might otherwise miss.
This is the Singapore’s Keppel harbour on a rainy day, captured from a sheltered vantage point. The heavy rain has rendered a dull, washed out effect of the harbour. Certain times of the year the region here goes into the monsoon season with long periods of torrential rain. As such, you may want to consider getting a waterproof pouch for your camera or perhaps shoot from inside your vehicle if there is no shelter. I used to cut a hole in a plastic bag and wrap it around my camera with some rubber bands. Sometimes I would use my raincoat to put it on my camera and tripod setup if I am shooting in a light drizzle.
On the other hand, the evening blue hour and rain go particularly well together. This is an image of Singapore’s Downtown district taken from an accessible high vantage point on a rainy day. It looks pretty amazing when these city lights pop out during the evening blue hour but if you look more closely, you could actually see car light trails reflected off the wet streets! That’s something you won’t get on a dry evening.
The thunderstorm is a great opportunity to capture lightning at night. Finding a good vantage point can be challenging at first because the storm is constantly moving and it is difficult to predict where the lightning will strike. The image above was shot in West Tampines, Singapore. I took a series of long exposures with a wide-angle lens, hoping that the lightning would appear during the period of capture. With a bit of luck, I managed to capture some lightning strikes. It is always a good habit to clean your gears after a day’s shoot in the rain.
Twice I have visited the Old Man of Storr at the Isle of Skye in Scotland, and twice, the bad weather had discouraged me from surpassing this spot successfully. When it rains, it’s better to wear a raincoat as umbrellas are the least useful in those kinds of environment. The above image I have captured may look like just another day with an overcast sky, but in fact, it had been raining intermittently with high winds! I wouldn’t want to risk getting blown out of balance by the strong winds and fall over the steep and rocky terrain. You have to be extremely cautious if you are shooting in mountainous or coastal regions with heavy downpour or high winds. It can be extremely dangerous if you are not too familiar with these terrains especially when the situation turns bad.
Sometimes the day turns bright and sunny after a heavy rain. If you look down on the streets, you may see puddles of the rainwater and you may capture some reflections of the landscape from a low angle. And if you look up, you might catch a glimpse of the beautiful rainbow in the sky. You have to be quick though because rainbows don’t last long. For the above image, I manage to capture the rainbow from the top of a carpark in West Tampines, Singapore. I was fortunate that the rainbow had lasted for about half an hour which gave me ample time to look for the best vantage point in the neighbourhood.
8. Winter Snow
Seeing actual snowfall in person is an exhilarating experience. I remember when it finally snowed in Norwich and everyone in the city went crazy about it. The beauty of it is that snow and frost can transform the landscape into an otherworldly winter wonderland. However, winter is not an easy time to photograph. For a person coming from a tropical region, snowy regions are arguably one of the most challenging conditions to shoot and I have not shot extensively in such conditions. Frigid temperatures often lead to discomfort for photographers and short battery life. In extreme cases, a snow blizzard or even whiteout may occur. With thorough preparation and protection, shooting winter landscapes could be a rewarding experience.
I shot this image of a playground in a park in Berlin one winter morning. It was my first time exploring a snowy cityscape and I was extremely excited about it, but at the same time, l realised I had not sufficiently prepared enough warm clothing for the weather. I did not expect the temperature would be much colder than the UK at the time. Thankfully there were shops nearby which allow me to keep myself warm once in a while. When transitioning from cold places to a warm place, do be careful of the dramatic change of temperature or humidity which may result in condensation building up in your camera lenses. Constant cycles of condensation produce moisture which can lead to mould growth and damage your lenses in the long run.
This image captured in Iceland shows just how much snowfall there was. Normally we would expect snow to appear white on our camera regardless of lighting conditions. However, snow can trick our camera meter and it can appear dull or grey on the image. Hence to get the correct exposure, you may sometimes need to overexpose a little to compensate.
The winter weather in Iceland can be quite harsh. Always, always, check the weather forecast before heading out and pay attention not only to the localised weather and temperature but also road conditions. Joining a tour group would a good choice if you have no experience driving in winter. Otherwise, you may have to do extensive research on driving in Iceland because driving through a snow blizzard at night is a frightening experience. The image above shows how sublime the snow blizzard can get. Driving alone on the dark, icy road became so stressful for me, I had to wait for the blizzard to pass at a closed petrol station befor I could continue my journey.
Colours and contrast work well even in snowy cityscapes at night. If you are out about in the city, capturing urban cityscapes in snowy winter night could be an interesting experience. Unlike Iceland, it’s much easier to take the public transport to get around locations, except, you do have to look out for the last train or bus! Above is an image of the Berlin Cathedral at night. I had used my cable release to capture the long exposure. In the foreground is a frozen fountain and adjacent the cathedral were bright lights illuminating from a large LED screen. I ended staying up for a couple of hours on the location because my hands had been trembling so much from the cold temperature that it kept causing camera shakes during the long exposure. Moral of the story: make sure to dress appropriately for the cold and account for the fact that it will be a lot colder once the sun goes down!
9. The Evening Golden Hour
The evening golden hour is usually a more popular time to shoot cityscapes, as people are knocking off from their work and there are more human activities going on during that transition. The colour temperature during the evening golden hour is always warmer than in the morning.
The long days of the midsummer provide the longest golden hours whereas these lights may last only a couple of minutes during winter. The image above was taken on a moving boat near the Oslo harbour during the evening golden hour one summer. Notice how the sunlight bathes these building structures with its golden lights, creating a bit of visual contrast with shadows where the light did not reach.
This photo was taken in Copenhagen. I was on my way back to my hotel after a whole day of touring the city when I noticed a beautiful sunburst over the river along the south harbour, particularly on the golden lights reflected over the river. Had I set up my camera slightly later, the sunlight would have dipped below these buildings, casting deep shadows onto the scene instead.
10. At Dusk
Dusk is the period just after the sunset, often with brilliant reddish-purplish colours in the clouds and a dramatic orange afterglow from the sun. This is the time where cars and city lights have just turned on. The colours at dusk tend to a bit more vivid than other times of the day.
I was lucky to able to witness an evening the sunset over the Copenhagen city from my hotel windows, right before the sun dipped below the horizon. I wished I had taken a time-lapse sequence of these intense colours as dusk transitioned into the night.
Above is an image of Edinburgh city captured from a vantage point. You can see clearly the afterglow of the setting sun, creating a beautiful blend of various pastel-like colour tones. I loved that the city lights had lit up, invoking a mystical feel of the city. Without these lights, I thought the scene would have been a less impactful visual, a mere silhouette of the sunset.
11. The Evening Twilight
When the city lights come on at dusk, you can see colours of the cityscape start to pop out. The evening twilight is my favourite time to capture cityscapes as I find the deep blue sky to be a lot more interesting than the black sky later in the night. Often the lights that illuminate the city’s landmarks happens only after sunset and not in the morning. As the evening gets darker, there won’t be a lot of ambient light left, so it’s a good time to seek artificial lights or the moonlight if available.
I took this image at the small quiet Portree town in Isle of Skye, Scotland. I was wandering around the harbour area and it was getting dark. I noticed how the orange street lights had reflected onto these boats and immediately wanted to capture that unique contrast of colours. I thought the scene would have lost that special moment if were taken later at night.
This was taken one evening during the Lunar New year season in Chinatown, Singapore. These beautiful lantern lights illuminating the street worked really work during the blue hour. I wanted to capture that festive mood as more people have knocked off from their work and were coming out to explore these market streets.
12. Into the Night
Last but not least, shooting landscapes at night can be a challenging experience as one might think that there isn’t anything interesting to shoot. However, compared to the daytime, night photography does open up a lot of creative opportunities such as slow exposure, bokeh effects, light and reflections, etc. It would be very useful to have a sturdy tripod and a cable release to keep your camera steady.
Christmas season is one of the best times for night photography. Colourful lights, lively crowd at these market stalls and even ice skating activities look so magical at night. I captured this image at the Christmas night market in Nottingham where the explosion of colours comes alive by nightfall and almost every angle is an interesting sight. In this case, the night sky wasn’t too dominant in the frame as I had focused on activities at the street level. I had used slow shutter speed to create a sense of flow in the movement of the crowd.
This image was captured on a cliff of a park called Parc de la Creueta del Coll in Barcelona. My original plan was to capture the magnificent view of the entire city at twilight but I stayed on the cliff longer than I had intended. I wasn’t too disappointed. This scene here offered a unique view of the Barcelona city residing on a mountainside and these street lights had looked like the artery of the city. However, getting down from the cliff became somewhat of a challenge as it was quite hard to navigate at night. Thankfully there was a full moon on that night.
The only time you can capture stars is during the night time, away from city areas with light pollution. Some of the ideal locations to capture astrophotography could be in national parks, forests, mountain tops and even lakes or coastal areas. When the atmospheric conditions are good, you could capture celestial phenomena such as meteor showers, the milky way, aurorae or even the Supermoon!
Wherever you are in the city or in the wilderness, your safety is extremely important especially at places where it could be very dark or dangerous. Always do your research and risk assessment beforehand. Take a friend with you or at least be accountable to someone before you head out. Consider bringing along some camping equipment if you’re intending to stay outdoors outside the city throughout the night. You may also need a flashlight or a map to navigate around because the last thing you ever want is to get stranded in the night.
Well, there you have it! Hopefully, this article will inspire everyone to appreciate landscapes in different lighting conditions. Regardless of where we travel, what level of photography we are at or whatever camera technology we have at hand, only when we learn to recognise how light and weather conditions can work together, any time of the day can be a good time to photograph landscapes. With a bit of sensibility and some creativity, the results can be really spectacular!